Graphite is used as an anode material of lithium-ion batteries and is coated on copper foil. Graphite is used because it has the capability of taking up and releasing lithium ions in between its layer structure during the charge and discharge processes. Thus, offers superior charge efficiency, energy density, and cell capacity.
Synthetic graphite has traditionally been the major anode material (55%) with natural graphite forming the balance (45%). Spherical graphite (SG) is modified natural graphite. Only graphite that can economically be shaped into spherical graphite (spheroidized) and purified is a suitable feedstock for the production of spherical graphite.
Spherical Graphite is Well-round-ended spherules that have a low specific surface area (BET), thereby minimising capacity losses. SGs allow efficient packing and increase the tap density and overall volumetric energy capacity of the anode. Thus, creating a smaller, lighter, and more efficient anode.
Compared to flake Graphite, SG is coated more evenly than sub-rounded or angular grains, which adds to the efficiency of the battery anode. It also increases the rate at which the cell can be charged.
The rise of Li-ion batteries demand is due to superior properties over other secondary (or rechargeable) batteries including high energy density, compact design, no memory effects, high open-circuit voltage, low self-discharge, high cycle life, and environmental benefits.
Considering the fact that lithium-ion batteries consume 10 – 15 times more graphite than lithium and in the light of forecast compound annual growth rates in said markets, there is a tremendous need, especially for high-grade graphite materials in the market.
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